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22: Sztein MB, Goldstein AL. Thymic hormones–a clinical update. Springer Semin Immunopathol. 1986;9(1):1-18. Review. PubMed PMID: 3014672.

23: Schulof RS, Low TL, Thurman GB, Goldstein AL. Thymosins and other hormones of the thymus gland. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1981;58:191-215. Review. PubMed PMID: 7022481.

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25: Haynes BF, Harden EA, Olanow CW, Eisenbarth GS, Wechsler AS, Hensley LL,Roses AD. Effect of thymectomy on peripheral lymphocyte subsets in myasthenia gravis: selective effect on T-cells in patients with thymic atrophy. J Immunol.1983 Aug;131(2):773-7. PubMed PMID: 6408188.

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27: Bach JF. Thymic hormones: biochemistry, and biological and clinicalactivities. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 1977;17:281-91. Review. PubMed PMID: 17354.

28: Schulof RS, Goldstein AL. Thymosin and the endocrine thymus. Adv Intern Med. 1977;22:121-43. Review. PubMed PMID: 320839.

29: Attallah AM, Yeatman TJ, Johnson RP, Petricciani JC. Biological responsemodifiers and their promise in clinical medicine. Pharmacol Ther.1982;19(3):435-54. Review. PubMed PMID: 6201933.

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31: Goldstein AL, Hooper JA, Schulof RS, Cohen GH, Thurman GB, McDaniel MC, WhiteA, Dardenne M. Thymosin and the immunopathology of aging. Fed Proc. 1974 Sep;33(9):2053-6. PubMed PMID: 4547564.

32: Giulling EV. [Role of the thymus in differentiation of cells of the lymphoid series]. Fiziol Zh. 1977 Nov-Dec;23(6):847-51. Review. Ukrainian. PubMed PMID: 338374.

33: Touraine JL. Induction of T lymphocyte differentiation by thymic factors. Mol Cell Biochem. 1981 Dec 4;41:119-22. PubMed PMID: 6977085.

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37: Bach JF, Bach MA, Charreire J, Dardenne M, Pleau JM. The mode of action of thymic hormones. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1979;332:23-32. Review. PubMed PMID: 231400.

38: Incefy GS, O’Reilly RJ, Kapoor N, Iwata T, Good RA. In vitro differentiation of human marrow T cell precursors by thymic factors in severe combined immunodeficiency. Transplantation. 1981 Oct;32(4):299-305. PubMed PMID: 6977211.

39: Fabien N, Auger C, Monier JC. Immunolocalization of thymosin alpha 1,thymopoietin and thymulin in mouse thymic epithelial cells at different stages of culture: a light and electron microscopic study. Immunology. 1988 Apr;63(4):721-7. PubMed PMID: 3284819; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1454785.

40: Hong R. Reconstitution of T-cell deficiency by thymic hormone or thymus transplantation therapy. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1986 Jul;40(1):136-41. Review. PubMed PMID: 3521966.

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43: Khan A. Thymic hormones and immunopeptides. Ann Allergy. 1978 Aug;41(2):78-83. PubMed PMID: 308333.

44: Goya RG, Brown OA, Bolognani F. The thymus-pituitary axis and its changes during aging. Neuroimmunomodulation. 1999 Jan-Apr;6(1-2):137-42. Review. PubMed PMID: 9876244.

45: Bodey B, Bodey B Jr, Siegel SE, Kaiser HE. The role of the reticulo-epithelial (RE) cell network in the immuno-neuroendocrine regulation of intrathymic lymphopoiesis. Anticancer Res. 2000 May-Jun;20(3A):1871-88. PubMed PMID: 10928121.

46: Tovo PA, Davi G, Fraceschini P, Delpiano A. Thymic hormone dependent immunodeficiency in an infant with partial trisomy of chromosome 22. Thymus. 1986;8(5):313-8. PubMed PMID: 3798528.

47: Grinevich IuA, Fil’chakov FV, Gomberg EG. [Effect of thymostimulin on thymic serum activity and the expression of E-receptor by guinea pig lymphocytes in late thymectomy]. Fiziol Zh. 1988 Mar-Apr;34(2):79-84. Russian. PubMed PMID: 3391311.

48: Savino W, de Mello-Coelho V, Dardenne M. Control of the thymic microenvironment by growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I-mediated circuits. Neuroimmunomodulation. 1995 Nov-Dec;2(6):313-8. Review. PubMed PMID:8840333.

49: Ho AD, Ma DD, Price G, Hunstein W, Hoffbrand AV. Biochemical and immunological differentiation of human thymocytes induced by thymic hormones. Immunology. 1983 Nov;50(3):471-6. PubMed PMID: 6605305; PubMed Central PMCID:PMC1454273.

50: Incefy GS, Boumsell L, Kagan W, Goldstein G, Sousa MD, Smithwick E, O’Reilly R, Good RA. Enhancement of T lymphocyte differentiation in vitro by thymic extracts and purified polypeptides in severe combined immunodeficiency diseases. Trans Assoc Am Physicians. 1975;88:135-45. PubMed PMID: 772925.

51: Bach JF. One or several thymic hormones? Recent Results Cancer Res.1980;75:106-9. PubMed PMID: 6972070.

52: Bendiug GD, Kamenets LIa, Nikol’skii IS, Grinevich IuA. [Characteristics of the inhibition of thymus endocrine function and synthesis of substances with thymosin-like activity caused by thymostimulin and splenin during DMBA-inducedmammary gland carcinogenesis in rats]. Eksp Onkol. 1987;9(3):54-7. Russian. PubMed PMID: 3111825.

53: Goldstein AL, Low TL, McAdoo M, McClure J, Thurman GB, Rossio J, Lai CY,Chang D, Wang SS, Harvey C, Ramel AH, Meienhofer J. Thymosin alpha1: isolation and sequence analysis of an immunologically active thymic polypeptide. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977 Feb;74(2):725-9. PubMed PMID: 265536; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC392366.

54: Low TL, Goldstein AL. Thymosins: structure, function and therapeutic applications. Thymus. 1984;6(1-2):27-42. Review. PubMed PMID: 6087503.

55: Markovic L. [Interaction involving the thymus and the hypothalamus-pituitary axis, immunomodulation by hormones]. Srp Arh Celok Lek. 2004 May-Jun;132(5-6):187-93. Review. Serbian. PubMed PMID: 15493593.

56: Consolini R, Cini P, Cei B, Bottone E. Thymic dysfunction in histiocytosis-X.Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 1987 Summer;9(2):146-8. PubMed PMID: 2954482.

57: Murthy KK, Ragland WL. Immunomodulation by thymic hormones: studies with an avian thymic hormone. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1984;161:481-91. PubMed PMID: 6333034.

58: Low TL, Goldstein AL. Thymic hormones: an overview. Methods Enzymol.1985;116:213-9. PubMed PMID: 4088084.

59: Nikolsky IS, Seleznyova TN, Zamotayeva GA, Martynenko SV, Grinevich YuA.Production of substances with thymosin-like activity by B- and T-lymphocytes. J Hyg Epidemiol Microbiol Immunol. 1990;34(3):309-14. PubMed PMID: 2273248.

60: D’Amelio R. [Immunotherapy today. II. Immunostimulating therapy]. Riv Med Aeronaut Spaz. 1978 Jan-Mar;41(1):75-114. Italian. PubMed PMID: 93770.

61: Goya RG, Bolognani F. Homeostasis, thymic hormones and aging. Gerontology.1999 May-Jun;45(3):174-8. Review. PubMed PMID: 10202264.

62: Low TL, Thurman GB, McAdoo M, McClure J, Rossio JL, Naylor PH, Goldstein AL. The chemistry and biology of thymosin. I. Isolation, characterization, and biological activities of thymosin alpha1 and polypeptide beta1 from calf thymus. J Biol Chem. 1979 Feb 10;254(3):981-6. PubMed PMID: 216684.

63: Di Sabato G. Biochemical aspects of the function of the thymus gland. Horiz Biochem Biophys. 1977;3:297-325. Review. PubMed PMID: 69602.

64: Brugo MA, Valcurone G, Tassi GC. [Thymus hormone reviewed]. Recenti Prog Med.1978 Sep;65(3):244-76. Review. Italian. PubMed PMID: 360328.

65: Ramagopal S, Reem GH. Activities of purine nucleotide metabolizing enzymes in human thymocytes and peripheral blood T lymphocytes: in vitro effect of thymic hormones. Thymus. 1982 May;4(3):163-72. PubMed PMID: 6287680.

66: Trainin N. Prospects of AIDS therapy by thymic humoral factor, a thymic hormone. Nat Immun Cell Growth Regul. 1990;9(3):155-9. Review. PubMed PMID: 2196458.

67: Comsa J. The thymic hormones. Hormones. 1971;2(4):226-55. Review. PubMed PMID: 5006663.

68: Thurman GB, Goldstein AL. The role of thymosin in lymphocyte maturation. Boll Ist Sieroter Milan. 1975 Jul 31;54(3):203-10. PubMed PMID: 1082758.

69: Shoham J, Eshel I. Thymic hormonal effect on human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro. III. Conditions for mixed lymphocyte-tumor culture assay. J Immunol Methods. 1980;37(3-4):261-72. PubMed PMID: 7192720.

70: Kaufman DB. Maturational effects of thymic hormones on human helper and suppressor T cells: effects of FTS (‘Facteur Thymique Sérique’) and thymosin. Clin Exp Immunol. 1980 Mar;39(3):722-7. PubMed PMID: 6445799; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1538127.

71: Goldstein AL, Badamchian M. Thymosins: chemistry and biological properties in health and disease. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2004 Apr;4(4):559-73. Review. PubMed PMID: 15102605.

72: Monier JC, Auger C, Corvee N, Stahli C, Fabien N. Immunoreactivity of aqueous extracts of rat and mouse tissue with anti-thymosin alpha 1, anti-bovine thymopoietin and anti-thymulin antibodies. Studies using immunoblotting. Thymus. 1988;11(3):173-83. PubMed PMID: 3363629.

73: Simon HU, Roth H, Forner K, Haroske D. [Immunological status of patients with recurrent herpes simplex infections. In vitro effect of thymopoietin and splenin-derived and partially modified peptides on peripheral blood lymphocytes in comparison to a thymus extract]. Allerg Immunol (Leipz). 1990;36(2):111-8. German. PubMed PMID: 1975471.

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75: Wara DW, Goldstein AL, Doyle NE, Ammann AJ. Thymosin activity in patients with cellular immunodeficiency. N Engl J Med. 1975 Jan 9;292(2):70-4. PubMed PMID: 1078552.

76: Incefy GS, Mertelsmann R, Yata K, Dardenne M, Bach JF, Good RA. Induction of differentiation in human marrow T cell precursors by the synthetic serum thymic factor, FTS. Clin Exp Immunol. 1980 May;40(2):396-406. PubMed PMID: 6969145;PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1536979.

77: Ciardelli TL, Incefy GS, Birr C. Activity of synthetic thymosin alpha 1 C-terminal peptides in the azathioprine E-rosette inhibition assay. Biochemistry. 1982 Aug 31;21(18):4233-7. PubMed PMID: 6982069.

78: Fabris N, Mocchegiani E, Mariotti S, Pacini F, Pinchera A. Thyroid function modulates thymic endocrine activity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1986 Mar;62(3):474-8. PubMed PMID: 3944232.

79: Which thymic hormone? Lancet. 1983 Jun 11;1(8337):1309-11. PubMed PMID:6134098.

80: Kendall MD. Have we underestimated the importance of the thymus in man?Experientia. 1984 Nov 15;40(11):1181-5. Review. PubMed PMID: 6389172.

81: Dardenne M. Role of thymic peptides as transmitters between theneuroendocrine and immune systems. Ann Med. 1999 Oct;31 Suppl 2:34-9. Review. PubMed PMID: 10574153.

82: Dalakas MC, Rose JW, Paul J, Engel WK, McClure JE, Goldstein AL. Increased circulation of T lymphocytes bearing surface thymosin alpha 1 in patients with myasthenia gravis: effect of thymectomy. Neurology. 1983 Feb;33(2):144-9. PubMed PMID: 6337347.

83: D’Souza BG, Pai SR. Response of lymphoid cells to thymic hormonal factors isolated from mouse thymus. Cancer Biochem Biophys. 1990 Jul;11(3):227-37. PubMed PMID: 2268852.

84: Ho AD, Stehle B, Birr C, Heinzel W, Nebe TC. Differentiation changes in cord blood T lymphocytes induced by synthetic C-terminal peptides of thymosin alpha 1. Thymus. 1987;9(2):77-84. PubMed PMID: 3035761.

85: Levinsky RJ, Davies EG, Goldstein G. Effect of synthetic thymic hormone (TP5) in children with T-cell immunodeficiencies. Birth Defects Orig Artic Ser. 1983;19(3):273-6. PubMed PMID: 6360239.

86: Heavner GA. Thymopentin structure and relation to thymic factors. Surv Immunol Res. 1985;4 Suppl 1:11-6. PubMed PMID: 3898282.

87: Goldstein AL, Low TL, Thurman GB, Zatz MM, Hall N, Chen J, Hu SK, Naylor PB, McClure JE. Current status of thymosin and other hormones of the thymus gland. Recent Prog Horm Res. 1981;37:369-415. Review. PubMed PMID: 7025134.

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89: Haynes BF, Warren RW, Buckley RH, McClure JE, Goldstein AL, Henderson FW,Hensley LL, Eisenbarth GS. Demonstration of abnormalities in expression of thymic epithelial surface antigens in severe cellular immunodeficiency diseases. Birth Defects Orig Artic Ser. 1983;19(3):255-8. PubMed PMID: 6606445.

90: Goldstein AL. The Gordon Wilson lecture. The history of the development of thymosin: chemistry, biology and clinical applications. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc. 1977;88:79-94. PubMed PMID: 331647; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2441421.

91: Fiorilli M, Sirianni MC, Pandolfi F, Quinti I, Tosti U, Aiuti F, Goldstein G.Improvement of natural killer activity and of T cells after thymopoietin pentapeptide therapy in a patient with severe combined immunodeficiency. Clin Exp Immunol. 1981 Aug;45(2):344-51. PubMed PMID: 7032772; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1537373.

92: Mizuno Y, Matsumaru A, Munakata Y, Funatsu K, Muraoka M, Shimabukuro K,Hashimoto S, Nakamura T, Tsuchiya M. [Thymic humoral factor produced by a thymic epithelial culture]. Nihon Kyobu Shikkan Gakkai Zasshi. 1985 Jan;23(1):17-23.Japanese. PubMed PMID: 4040185.

93: Wara DW, Ammann AJ. Thymosin treatment of children with primary immunodeficiency disease. Transplant Proc. 1978 Mar;10(1):203-9. PubMed PMID: 305674.

94: Sobolev SM, Stepanova TN. [Thymic hormonal effects on the antigen-dependent differentiation of accessory T-lymphocytes in the humoral immune response]. Ontogenez. 1986 Jan-Feb;17(1):62-9. Russian. PubMed PMID: 3960463.

95: Kinoshita Y, Hato F. Cellular and molecular effects of thymic epithelial cells on thymocytes during differentiation and maturation. Int Rev Cytol. 1994;156:159-98. Review. PubMed PMID: 7860216.

96: Imhof BA, Deugnier MA, Itoh T, Thiery JP. T lymphocyte precursors migrate towards chemotactic peptides secreted by embryonic or juvenile thymus. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1988;237:565-70. PubMed PMID: 3267062.

97: Goldstein AL, Thurman GB, Rossio JL, Costanzi JJ. Immunologic reconstitution of patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases and cancer after treatment with thymosin. Transplant Proc. 1977 Mar;9(1):1141-4. PubMed PMID: 325742.

98: Handzel ZT, Elitsur Y, Algrimawi S, Moses S, Keynan A, Amitai I, Pecht M,Burstein Y, Buchner V, Trainin N. Treatment of congenital immune deficiencies with a thymic hormone–thymic humoral factor. Isr J Med Sci. 1986 May;22(5):387-92. PubMed PMID: 3528049.

99: Kinoshita Y, Hato F. Cellular and molecular interactions of thymus with endocrine organs and nervous system. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2001 Feb;47(1):103-17. Review. PubMed PMID: 11292245.

100: Chen SS, Tung JS, Gillis S, Good RA, Hadden JW. Changes in surface antigens of immature thymocytes under the influence of T-cell growth factor and thymic factors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983 Oct;80(19):5980-4. PubMed PMID: 6604276; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC390201.

 

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