Orthomolecular Medicine Scientific References:

1.”The method of determining proper doses of vitamin C for treatment of diseases by titrating to bowel tolerance.” Australian Nurses Journal 9(4):9-13 March, 1980. Also in: Journal of Orthomolecular Psychiatry 10:125-132, 1981. http://orthomolecular.org/library/jom/1981/pdf/1981-v10n02-p125.pdf

2.”Vitamin C, Titration to Bowel Tolerance, Anascorbemia, and Acute Induced Scurvy.” Medical Hypothesis 7:1359-1376, 1981. Also in Let’s Live (Japan) 16:9, Nov 1983. Also at http://www.doctoryourself.com/titration.html

3. “Vitamin C, the nontoxic, nonrate-limited antioxidant free radical scavenger.” Medical Hypothesis 18:61-77. 1985 .

4.”The vitamin C treatment of allergy and the normally unprimed state of antibodies.” Medical Hypothesis, 21(3):307-321 Nov 1986.

5.”A controversial protocol: Ascorbate challenges PCP.” The San Francisco Sentinel, Sept 12, 1986, page 9.

6.”A Unique Function for Ascorbate.” Medical Hypothesis 35:32-37 May 1991.

7.”The third face of vitamin C” J Orthomolecular Med, Vol 7, Number 4, p 197-200, 1992. Also at http://orthomolecular.org/library/jom/1992/toc4.shtml

8.Hickey DS, Roberts HJ, Cathcart RF. Dynamic flow: A new model for ascorbate. J Orthomolecular Med, Vol 20, Number 4, p 237-244, 2005. http://orthomolecular.org/library/jom/2005/pdf/2005-v20n04-p237.pdf

9.Dr. Free, P. Sanders “The Use of Ascorbic Acid and Mineral Supplements in the Detoxification of Narcotic Addicts.” Journal of Orthomolecular Psychiatry Vol 7, No. 4 264-270.

10.Dr. Libby, Dr. Stone. The H-K Approach to Drug Addiction Therapy. Journal of Orthomolecular Psychiatry Vol 6, No. 4 p 300—308.

11.Null G. “AIDS Scandal, new facts about prevention and treatment.” Penthouse, December 1985.

12.Lorch P. “The Ascorbate Doctor.” Bay Area Reporter XIV(10):6 March 8, 1984.

13.Coupland K. “The Vitamin C Resistance.” Sentinel USA, Part 1: January 17 1985, and part 2: January 31, 1985.

14.Lamble D. “Vitamin C. Debate continues.” Sentinel USA, 3//28/85.

15.Hoffer A & Osmond H. Paper to Dementia Praecox Committee, Scottish Rites Masons, New York. Given at the Canada Room, The Waldorf Astoria, New York, 1952. (“This was our first report on the adrenochrome hypothesis.”)

16.Hoffer A, Osmond H & Smythies J: Schizophrenia: a new approach. II. Results of a year’s research. J Ment Science 100:29-45, 1954.

17.Clancy J, Hoffer A, Lucy J, Osmond H, Smythies J & Stefaniak B: Design and planning in psychiatric research as illustrated by the Weyburn Chronic Nucleotide Project. Bull Men Clinic, 18:147-153, 1954.

18.Altschul R, Hoffer A & Stephen JD: Influence of nicotinic acid on serum cholesterol in man. Arch Biochem Biophys 54:558-559, 1955.

19.Szatmari A, Hoffer A & Schneider R: The effect of adrenochrome and niacin on the electroencephalogram of epileptics. Am J Psychiat 3:603-616, 1955.

20.Agnew N & Hoffer A. Nicotinic acid modified lysergic acid diethylamide psychosis. J Ment Science 101:12-27, 1955. (Abstract available Here)

21.Hoffer A. Effect of niacin and nicotinamide on leukocytes and some urinary constituents. Can Med Assoc J 74:448-451, 1955.

22.Hoffer A, Osmond H, Callbeck MJ & Kahan I: Treatment of schizophrenia with nicotinic acid and nicotinamide. J Clin Exper Psychopathol 18:131-158, 1957.

23.Hoffer A & Callbeck MJ: The hypocholesterolemic effect of nicotinic acid and its relationship to the autonomic nervous system. J Ment Science 103:810-820, 1957.

24.Hoffer A. The relationship of nicotinic acid to thyroid function. Can Med Assoc J 77:965 only, 1957.

25.Hoffer A. Adrenochrome and adrenolutin and their relationship to mental disease. Psychotropic Drugs. Eds. Garattini S & Ghetti V. Elsevier Press, London, 10-20, 1957.

26.Hoffer A. Adrenochrome and blood plasma. Amer J Psychiatry 114:752-753, 1958.

27.Hoffer A. Relation of epinephrine metabolites to schizophrenia. In: Chemical Concepts of Psychiatry. Eds: Rinkel M & Denber HGB. McDowell-Obolensky Inc., New York, 1958.

28.Altschul R & Hoffer A. Effects of salts of nicotinic acid on serum cholesterol. Brit Med J 2:713-714, 1958.

29.Altschul R & Hoffer A. The effect of nicotinic acid upon serum cholesterol and upon basal metabolic rate of young normal adults. Arch Biochem Biophysics 73:420- 424, 1958.

30.Hoffer A & Osmond H. The adrenochrome model and schizophrenia. J Nerv Mental Dis 128:18-35, 1959.

31.Osmond H & Hoffer A. Schizophrenia: A new approach III. J Ment Science 105:653-673, 1959.

32.Hoffer A & Callbeck MJ: Effect of nicotinic acid on liver function and leukocytes. Can Med Assoc J 80:736-737, 1959.

33.Hoffer A, O’Reilly PO & Callbeck MJ: Specificity of the hypocholesterolemic activity of nicotinic acid. Dis Nerv Syst 20:286-288, 1959.

34.Osmond H & Hoffer A. On critics and research. Psychosomatic Med 21:311-320, 1959.

35.Hoffer A. Treatment of arthritis by nicotinic acid and nicotinamide. Can Med Assoc J 81:235-238, 1959.

36.O’Reilly PO, Callbeck MJ & Hoffer A. Sustained-release nicotinic acid (Nicospan). Effect on (1) cholesterol levels and (2) leukocytes. Can Med Assoc J 80:359-362, 1959.

37.Hoffer A & Osmond H. The Chemical Basis of Clinical Psychiatry. C. C. Thomas, Springfield, IL, 1960.

38.Hoffer A & Osmond H. Alcoholism and the researcher. AA Grapevine 1960.

39.Altschul R & Hoffer A. Letter to Editor Re: Nicotinic acid on hypercholesterolemia. Can Med Assoc J 83:36-37, 1960.

40.Hoffer A & Osmond H. Concerning an etiological factor in alcoholism. The possible role of adrenochrome metabolism. Quart J Stud Alcohol 20:750-756, 1959.

41.Hoffer A. The adrenochrome hypothesis of schizophrenia. Paper read to Proc Sixth Ann Psychiatric Institute, Princeton, Sept 1958. Pub in Proceedings, 36-53.

42.Hoffer A. Adrenaline metabolites and schizophrenia. Dis Nerv Syst 21, Monograph Supp, 79-86, 1960.

43.Altschul R & Hoffer A. The effect of nicotinic acid on hypercholesterolemia. Can Med Assoc J 82:783-785, 1960.

44.Hoffer A. The relationship of nicotinic acid to cholesterol metabolism. J Clin Exper Psychopath 22: 165-179, 1961.

45.Hoffer A & Osmond H. The biochemistry of mental disease. Can Med Assoc J 85:1309-1311, 1961.

46.Hoffer A & Osmond H. Double blind clinical trials. J Neuropath 2:221-227, 1961.

47.Hoffer A. Ascorbic acid and schizophrenia. B.M.J. 1:1342 only, 1962.

48.Hoffer A. The effect of adrenochrome and adrenolutin on the behavior of animals and the psychology of man. Int Rev Neurobiology 4:307-371, 1962.

49.Hoffer A. Niacin Therapy in Psychiatry. C. C. Thomas, Springfield, IL, 1962.

50.Hoffer A & Osmond H. A card sorting test helpful in establishing prognosis. Am J Psychiatry 118:840-841,1962

51.Hoffer A & Osmond H. Some schizophrenic recoveries. Dis Nerv Syst 23:204-210, 1962

52.Hoffer A & Osmond H. Letter to Editor Re: Double blind clinical trials. J Neuropsychiatry 2:262-263, 1962.

53.Hoffer A & Osmond H. Letter to Editor: Adrenaline and schizophrenia. Lancet 1:643-644, 1962.

54.Hoffer A. Letter to Editor Re: Malnutrition and mental disease. Brit Med Assoc J 1:1342 only, 1962.

55.Hoffer A & Osmond H. Scurvy and schizophrenia. Dis Nerv Syst 24:273-285, 1963.

56.Hoffer A & Osmond H. A comprehensive theory of schizophrenia. Mind 1:119-121, 1963.

57.Hoffer A. What’s new in psychiatric research. Introduction. Mind. Psychiatry in General Practice, 1:28 only, 1963.

58.Osmond H & Hoffer A. Massive niacin treatment in schizophrenia. Review of a nine-year study. Lancet 1:316-320, 1963.

59.Smith CM, Hoffer A, Dantow MD & McIntyre S: Nicotinic acid in old age. The placebo effect and other factors in the collection of valid data. J Amer Geriat Soc 11:580-585, 1963.

60.Hoffer A. Nicotinic acid: an adjunct in the treatment of schizophrenia. Am J Psychiat 120:171-173, 1963.

61.Hoffer A. The adrenochrome theory of schizophrenia. a review. Dis Nerv Syst 25:173-178, 1964.

62.Hoffer A. Single case design and double blind comparison studies for drug evaluation. Mind. Psychiatry in General Practice, 2:119-120, 1964.

63.Hoffer A & Osmond H. Treatment of schizophrenia with nicotinic Acid – a ten year follow-up. Acta Psychiat Scand 40:171-189, 1964.

64.Hoffer A. Treatment of organic psychosis with nicotinic acid (a single case). Dis Nerv Syst 26: 358-360, 1965.

65.Hoffer A. Alcoholism Treatment and Research Center. The Can Forester, LXXXV, August 1965.

66.Hoffer A. Malvaria, schizophrenia and the HOD test. Int J Neuropsychiatry 2:175-177, 1965.

67.Osmond H & Hoffer A. A comprehensive theory of schizophrenia. Int J Neuropsychiatry 2:302-309, 1965.

68.Hoffer A. The effect of nicotinic acid on the frequency and duration of re-hospitalization of schizophrenic patients; A controlled comparison study. Int J Neuropsychiatry 2:234-240, 1966.

69.Hoffer A & Osmond H. How To Live With Schizophrenia. University Books, New York, NY, 1966. Also published by Johnson, London, 1966. Written by Fannie Kahan. New and Revised Ed. Citadel Press, New York, N.Y. 1992

70.Hoffer A. Use of nicotinic acid and/or nicotinamide in high doses to treat schizophrenia. Can J Psychiatric Nursing 76:5-6, 1966.

71.Hoffer A. Enzymology of Hallucinogens. In, Enzymes in Mental Health, J.B. Lippincott, 43-55, 1966.

72.Hoffer A & Osmond H. New Hope For Alcoholics, University Books, New York, 1966. Written by Fannie Kahan. Excerpt

73.Hoffer A. Biochemistry of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide. Psychosomatics 8:95-100, 1967.

74.Hoffer A & Osmond H. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. J Psychopharm 1:79-95, 1967.

75.Kelm H, Hoffer A & Hall RW: Reliability of the Hoffer-Osmond Diagnostic test. J Clin Psychology 23:380-382, 1967.

76.Hoffer A. A theoretical examination of double-blind design. Can Med Assoc J 97:123-127, 1967.

77.Kelm H, Hoffer A & Osmond H. Hoffer-Osmond Diagnostic Manual. Saskatoon, 1967.

78.Hoffer A. Treatment of schizophrenia with a therapeutic program based upon nicotinic acid as the main variable. Molecular Basis of Some Aspects of Mental Activity, Vol II. Ed. O Walaas, Academic Press, New York, 1967.

79.Kelm H, Callbeck MJ & Hoffer A. A short form of the Hoffer-Osmond Diagnostic test. Int J Neuropsychiatry 3:489-490, 1967.

80.Hoffer A. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in the treatment of chronic schizophrenic patients. British J Psychiatry 114:915-917, 1968.

81.Hoffer A & MacLean JR: A brief history of the American Schizophrenia Foundation. Schizophrenia 1:10-12, 1969.

82.Hoffer A. Comparison of xanthine nicotinate and nicotinic acid as treatment for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia 1:24- 37, 1969.

83.Hoffer A. Safety, side effects and relative lack of toxicity of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide. Schizophrenia 1:78-87, 1969.

84.Hoffer A. Adverse effects of niacin in emergent psychosis. J Am Med Ass 207:1355 only, 1969. (Available here)

85.Hoffer A. Introduction to Mental Health Through Nutrition, by Judge Tom R. Blaine, The Citadel Press, New York, 1969.

86.Hoffer A. Pellagra and schizophrenia. Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine, Buenos Aires, Jan. 12-18, 1970. Psychosomatic II, 522-525, 1970.

87.Hoffer A. Living with schizophrenia: An Unusual Case of Schizophrenia in a Man of 56. Schizophrenia 2:80-86, 1970.

88.Hoffer A. Childhood schizophrenia. a case treated with nicotinic acid and nicotinamide. Schizophrenia 2:43-53,1970.

89.Hoffer A & Osmond H. Vitamin B-3 and Krebiozen – a polemic. Schizophrenia 2:161-165, 1970.

90.Hoffer A. Symposium on statistical aspects of protocol design. Discussion. Cancer Clinical Investigation Review Committee, San Juan, Puerto Rico, 224-229, Dec. 9-10, 1970.

91.Hoffer A. A vitamin B-3 dependent family. Schizophrenia 3:41-46, 1971.

92.Hoffer A. Megavitamins Can Psychiatric Ass J. 19:124-5, 1971

93.Hoffer A. Letter to Editor. Ascorbic acid and schizophrenia. C.M.C. News 2, May 1971.

94.Hoffer A. Letter to Editor. (Rebuttal of attack on Linus Pauling) Nutrition Today 6:34-35, 1971.

95.Hoffer A. Vitamin B-3 dependent child. Schizophrenia 3:107-113, 1971.

96.Hoffer A. Ascorbic acid and toxicity. New England J of Med 285:635-636, 1971.

97.Hoffer A. Vitamin C and the common cold. Can Med Assoc J 105:901-902, 1971.

98.Hoffer A. Megavitamin B-3 therapy for schizophrenia. Can Psychiatric Ass J 16:499-504, 1971.

99.Masters AB, Hoffer A, Nair NPV, Messer CJ, Zarzadias R & Moraes C: Care of chronic psychotics. Brit Med Ass J 4:489 only, 1971.

100.Hoffer A. Foreword to, Body Mind and the B Vitamins by R Adams & F Murray. Larchmont Books, New York, 1972.

101.Hoffer A. LSD-induced psychosis and vitamin B-3. Amer J Psychiatry 128:145 only, 1972

102.Hoffer A. Orthomolecular treatment of schizophrenia. Orthomolecular Psychiatry 1:46-55, 1972.

103.Hoffer A. Treatment of hyperkinetic children with nicotinamide and pyridoxine. Can Med Assoc J 107:111-112, 1972.

104.Hoffer A. Orthomolecular treatment for schizophrenia. J Practical Nursing 22:16-19 and 20-22, 1972.

105.Hoffer A. LSD-induced psychosis and vitamin B-3 Amer J of Psychiatry. 128; 1155 only, 1972

106.Hoffer A. Senility is a form of chronic malnutrition. Report of a National Conference on The Crisis in Health Care For The Aging, sponsored by the Huxley Institute of Biosocial Research, New York, Mar. 6, 1972.

107.Hoffer A. Clofibrate and nicotinic acid. Can Med Assoc J 107:488-489, 1972.

108.Hoffer A. Orthomolecular treatment for schizophrenia. Medical Counterpart 4:10-20, 1973.

109.Hoffer A. Mechanism of action of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide in the treatment of schizophrenia. In, Orthomolecular Psychiatry, Eds. David Hawkins and Linus Pauling. WH Freeman and Co., San Francisco, 1973.

110. Hoffer A. Schizophrenia: An Evolutionary Advance. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 2:39, 1973.

111.Hoffer A. Orthomolecular therapy. Psychiatric Opinion 10:6-10, 1973.

112.Hoffer A. An examination of the double-blind method as it has been applied to megavitamin therapy. Orthomolecular Psychiatry 2:107-114, 1973.

113.Hoffer A. Orthomolecular treatment of schizophrenia. Can J Psychiat Nursing 14:11-14, 1973.

114.Hoffer A. Adverse effects of niacin in emergent psychosis. J.A.M.A. 207:1355 only, 1973.

115.Hoffer A. Learning disability. Can Med Assoc J 109:574 only, 1973.

116.Hoffer A. Vitamin C and infertility. The Lancet 2:1146 only, 1973.

117.Hoffer A. The great vitamin spree – pro and con. BC Med J 15:350 only, 1973.

118.Hoffer A. Orthomolecular psychiatry. BC Med J 16:137-140, 1974.

119.Hoffer A. Hallucinogens. Encyclopedia Britannica 15th Ed., 557-560, 1974.

120.Hoffer A. Double blind studies. Can Med Assoc J 111:752 only, 1974.

121.Hoffer A. Treatment of choice. Saint Johns Edmonton Report, Volume 1, 1974.

122.Hoffer A. The megavitamin scene. The Lancet 2:908 only, 1974.

123.Hoffer A. Hyperactivity, allergy and megavitamins. Can Med Assoc J 111:905-907, 1974.

124.Hoffer A. Senility and chronic malnutrition. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 3:2-19, 1974.

125.Hoffer A. The orthomolecular controversy. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 3:164-166, 1974.

126.Hoffer A. History of orthomolecular psychiatry. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 3:223-230, 1974.

127.Hoffer A. The drug addictions. The Answer 11:2-5 & 38-40, 1974.

128.Hoffer A. Calories, protein, lipids, carbohydrates and the Saccharine Disease. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 3:231-239, 1974.

129.Hoffer A. Treatment of schizophrenia. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 3:280-290, 1974.

130.Hoffer A. The relation of crime to nutrition. Humanist in Canada 34:2-9, 1975.

131.Hoffer A. Nutrition and schizophrenia. Canadian Family Physician 21:78-82, 1975.

132. Hoffer A. Nutrition and Schizophrenia; the debate continues. Canadian Family Physician 21:15-16, 1975.

133. Hoffer A. A note on folklore and medical discovery. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 4:211 only, 1975.

134.Hoffer A. Orthomolecular Medicine: What is it, How does it work. Impact of Science on Society 25:233-244, 1975.

135.Hoffer A, Kelm H & Osmond H. The Hoffer-Osmond Diagnostic Test. RE Krieger Pub Co. Huntington, New York, 1975.

136.Hoffer A. The orthomolecular controversy. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 5:54-67, 1976.

137.Hoffer A. Editorial. Establishment journal looks at orthomolecular psychiatry. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 5:78-83, 1976.

138.Hoffer A. Natural history and treatment of thirteen pairs of identical twins, schizophrenic and schizophrenic-spectrum conditions. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 5:101-122, 1976.

139.Hoffer A & Osmond H. Megavitamin Therapy. Can Schiz Foundation, Regina, 1976.

140.Stone I & Hoffer A. The genesis of medical myths

. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 5:163-168, 1976.

141.Hoffer A. Megavitamin therapy for different cases. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 5:169-182, 1976.

142.Hoffer A. Children with learning and behavioral disorders. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 5:228-230, 1976.

143.Hoffer A & Osmond H. In Reply to The American Psychiatric Association Task Force Report on Megavitamin and Orthomolecular Therapy in Psychiatry. Canadian Schizophrenia Foundation, Regina, Sask., now 16 Florence Ave., Toronto, ON, Canada M2N 1E9, August 1976. Full text posted at

144.Hoffer A. The double blind method. Can Psych Ass Journal 6:449-450, 1976.

145.Hoffer A. Editorial. The Medical Model and Mileau Therapy. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 5:246-252, 1976.

146.Hoffer A. Editorials. Does ascorbic acid destroy vitamin B-12? and Crime: the price of chemical tranquility. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 6:2-7, 1977.

147.Hoffer A. Orthomolecular psychiatry in theory and practice. Drug Therapy 79-85, 1977.

148.Hoffer A. On evidence. Canadian Doctor 43:30 only, 1977.

149.Hoffer A. Evidence and belief. Can Med Assoc J 117:733-734, 1977.

150.Hoffer A. To the Editor. Tardive dyskinesia treated with manganese. Can Med Assoc J 117:859 only, 1977.

151.Hoffer A. An Interview. Ex-POW Bull Volume 34, Sept 30-33 and Oct 19-23, 1977.

152.Hoffer A. Editorial. Rules of inquiry. About the APA Task Force on Megavitamin Therapy and Orthomolecular Psychiatry. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 7:82-85, 1978.

153.Hoffer A. Diagnosing depression. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 7:177-179, 1978.

154.Hoffer A & Walker M: Orthomolecular Nutrition. Keats Pub, New Canaan, CT, 1978.

155.Hoffer A. Some theoretical principles basic to orthomolecular psychiatric treatment. In: Ecologic-Biochemical Approaches to Treatment of Delinquents and Criminals. Ed. LJ Hippchen. Van Nostrand-Reinhold Co, New York, 31-55, 1978.

156.Hoffer A. Letter to Editor. Megavitamins versus tranquilizer therapy. Canadian Family Physician 24:410 only, 1978.

157.Hoffer A. and Osmond H. Color in our Pills, J Orthomolecular Medicine 8:2, 1979.

158.Hoffer A. Orthomolecular psychiatry. Proc Section World Congress Biol Psychiatry, Barcelona, 1978. Elsevier North Holland Biomedical Press BV Amsterdam 1979.

159.Hoffer A. Obsessions and depression. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 8:78-81, 1979.

160.Hoffer A. Behavioral nutrition. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 8:169-175, 1979.

161.Hoffer A. Crime, punishment and treatment. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 8:193-199, 1979.

162.Hoffer A & Walker M: Nutrients to Age Without Senility. Keats Pub Inc, New Canaan, CT, 1980

163.Hoffer A. Newer trends in orthomolecular medicine. Newsletter, Northwest Academy Preventive Med 7 pages 3 and 6, 1980.

164.Hoffer A & Osmond H. Schizophrenia. another long term follow-up in Canada. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 9:107-113, 1980.

165.Hoffer A. To the Editor. Crime and delinquency. A reply to H Wagemaker, Biol Psychiatry 15:171-172, 1980. Biological Psychiatry 26:249-250, 1980.

166.Hoffer A. Mega amino acid therapy. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 9:2-5, 1980.

167.Hoffer A. Allergy, depression and tricyclic anti-depressants. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 9:164-170, 1980.

168.Hoffer A. Megavitamins Biol Psychiatry 15:821-2, 1980

169.Hoffer A. Letter to the Editor, re critique of Leonard Hippchen’s book, Ecologic-Biochemical Approaches to Treatment of Delinquents and Criminals, by T. J. Gaensbauer. Crime and Delinquency 26:249-250, 1980.

170.Osmond H & Hoffer A. Naturally occurring endogenous major and minor tranquilizers. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 9:198-206, 1980.

171.Hoffer A. Megavitamin Therapy. In: The Psychotherapy Handbook. 370-374, Ed.R Herink. New American Library, New York, 1980.

172.Hoffer A. The Adrenochrome Hypothesis of Schizophrenia Revisited. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 10:98-118, 1981.

173.Hoffer A. Editorial. Mercury-Silver Amalgams. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 11:2 only, 1982.

174.Hoffer A. Why nicotinic acid lowers lipid levels. Can Med Assoc J 128:372 only, 1983.

175.Hoffer A. Nutrition and cancer. Anabolism, J Preventive Med 2:5-7, 1983. Ed. R Powell, La Jolla, CA.

176.Hoffer A. Nutrition and behavior. In, Medical Applications of Clinical Nutrition. Ed. J Bland. Keats Pub, New Canaan CT, 222-251, 1983.

177.Hoffer A. Latent Huntington’s disease – response to orthomolecular treatment. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 12:44-47, 1983.

178.Hoffer A. Update: (a) treatment of multiple sclerosis with hyperbaric oxygen. (b) Niacin hepatitis. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 12:89-90, 1983.

179.Hoffer A. Orthomolecular nutrition at the zoo. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 12:116-128, 1983.

180.Hoffer A. Editorial. Criticism. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 12:252-259, 1983.

181.Hoffer A. Oxidation-reduction in the brain. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 12:292-301, 1983.

182.Hoffer A. Comments on prevention. Canada’s Mental Health 32:23 only, 1984.

183.Hoffer A. Megavitamin therapy. Times Colonist, Victoria, BC, March 29, 1984.

184.Hoffer A. Nutritional ignorance. B.C. Med J 26:345 only, 1984.

185.Hoffer A. Letter to Editor. Health Food Retailing, Australia, September 1984, page 25 only.

186.Hoffer A. Orthomolecular treatment of schizophrenia. Society for Environmental Therapy 4:3-6, 1984.

187.Hoffer A. Treating schizophrenia. Australasian Health and Healing 4:7-14, 1984.

188.Hoffer A. Gastric bypass surgery and nutrient deficiency. Can Med Assoc J 131:1019 only, 1984

189.Hoffer A. Editorial. The Controversial Vitamins. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 13:2-5, 1984.

190.Hoffer A. Vitamin B-3 (Niacin). Keats Pub, New Canaan CT, 1984.

191.Hoffer A. Editorial. The tomato effect. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 13:142-143, 1984.

192.Hoffer A. Editorial. On pain, developmental defects, and vitamin safety. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 14:2-4, 1985.

193.Hoffer A. Foreword to Living With Schizophrenia. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 14:39-41, 1985.

194.Hoffer A. Editorial. A basic flaw in modern medical research. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 14:82-84, 1985.

195.Hoffer A. Thyroid and cancer. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 14:85-87, 1985.

196.Hoffer A. Huntington’s disease: a follow-up. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 13:42-44, 1984.

197.Hoffer A. Letter to Editor. Nutrition Today, About Niacin 20:36 only, 1985.

198.Hoffer A. Dopamine, noradrenalin and adrenalin metabolism to methylated or chrome indole derivatives: two pathways or one? J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 14:262-272, 1985.

199.Hoffer A. Ascorbic acid and kidney stones. Can Med Assoc J 132:320 only, 1985.

200.Hoffer A. Children’s Multiple Vitamin overuse lead to overdose CMAJ 133:13 only, 1985

201.Hoffer A. Vitamin B-3. Can Med Assoc J 135:1250 only, 1986.

202.Hoffer A. Vitamin Therapy For Hyperactivity and Schizophrenia. a family’s struggle. J Orthomolecular Medicine 1:57-62, 1986.

203.Hoffer A. Editorial. The New Debate in Nutrition. J Orthomolecular Medicine 1:72 only, 1986.

204.Hoffer A. Editorial. Nutrition in Institutions Controlled by Physicians. J Orthomolecular Medicine 1:216-218, 1986.

205Hoffer A. Editorial. Seminar on Orthomolecular Medicine. Ben Gurion University Medical Center, May 21, 1987. J Orthomolecular Medicine 2:2 only, 1987.

206.Hoffer A. Editorial. Why Flog a Dead Horse? J Orthomolecular Medicine 2:74 only, 1987.

207.Hoffer A. Editorials: ‘Schizophrenia and Suicide’ and ‘Let’s Help the FDA’. J Orthomolecular Medicine 2:144-145, 1987.

208.Hoffer A. Is There a Conspiracy? J Orthomolecular Medicine 2:158-165, 1987.

209.Hoffer A. Vitamin B-3 CMAJ 137:12 only, 1987

210.Hoffer A. Linus Pauling Honors the Canadian Schizophrenia Foundation. J Orthomolecular Medicine 2:183-184, 1987.

211.Hoffer A. How to Study a Controversial Area in Medicine. J Orthomolecular Medicine 3:207-210, 1987.

212.Hoffer A. Further Report on a Schizophrenic Patient who had Hyperasparaginemia J Orthomolecular Medicine 2:213-216, 1987.

213.Hoffer A. Editorial. Winds of Change. J Orthomolecular Medicine 2:221-222, 1987. Editorial.

214.Hoffer A. Control of Huntington’s Disease by Orthomolecular Treatment. J Orthomolecular Medicine 2:229 only, 1987.

215.Hoffer A. Editorial. How Can Anything So Simple Help Something So Complicated? J Orthomolecular Medicine 3:2 only, 1988.

216.Hoffer A. Letter to Editor. Fluoridation: why is it not more widely adopted? Can Med Assoc J 138:11 only, 1988.

217.Hoffer A. Common Questions on Schizophrenia and Their Answers. Keats Pub, New Canaan, CT, 1988.

218.Hoffer A. Can alternative and conventional treatments of cancer co-exist? Health Sciences Program, University Extension and Community Relations, University of Victoria, Feb 8, 1989.

219.Hoffer A. In Memoriam: Carl C. Pfeiffer, B.A., Ph.D., M.D. 1908-1988 and Here. J Orthomolecular Medicine 4:3-5, 1989.

220.Hoffer A. The Discovery of Vitamin C: Albert Szent-Gyorgi, M.D. Ph.D. 1893-1986. J Orthomolecular Medicine 4:24-26, 1989.

221.Hoffer A. Editorial. This is What They Said about Medical Mavericks. J Orthomolecular Medicine 4:54-57, 1989.

222.Hoffer A. The Bristol Regimen for Cancer Treatment CMAJ 144:411-412, 1989

223.Hoffer A. The Fluoride Controversy – The First Forty Years. J Orthomolecular Medicine 4:119-122, 1989.

224.Hoffer A. Preface. In The Best of Health. The 101 Best Books. Sheldon Zerden, Four Walls Eight Windows, New York, xi- xii, 1989

225.Hoffer A. Editorial. An Historical Note. J Orthomolecular Medicine 4:183-184, 1989.

226.Hoffer A. Niacin, Coronary Disease and Longevity. J Orthomolecular Medicine 4:211-220, 1989.

227.Hoffer A. Letter to Editor. Dr. Reading under fire in Australia. J Orthomolecular Medicine 4:234-235, 1989.

228.Hoffer A. Vitamin and mineral supplements increase intelligence. Nutrition Health Review, Fall 1989

229.Hoffer, A. Editorial. Psychiatry J Orthomolecular Medicine 2:59, 1990

230.Hoffer A. Editorial. Adrenochrome Hypothesis Revisited. J Orthomolecular Medicine 5:3 only, 1990.

231.Hoffer A & Osmond H. The Adrenochrome Hypothesis and Psychiatry. J Orthomolecular Medicine 5:32-45, 1990.

232.Hoffer A. Cancer and Vitamin C. J Orthomolecular Medicine 5:123 only, 1990.

233.Hoffer A, Walker, M: Senility is not inevitable – history proves otherwise – notable historic figures accomplished great things at advanced ages. Nutrition Health Review, Winter 1990

234.Hoffer A & Pauling L. Hardin Jones biostatistical analysis of mortality data for cohorts of cancer patients with a large fraction surviving at the termination of the study and a comparison of survival times of cancer patients receiving large regular oral doses of vitamin C and other nutrients with similar patients not receiving those doses. J Orthomolecular Medicine 5:143-154, 1990. Reprinted in, Cancer and Vitamin C, E Cameron and L Pauling, Camino Books, Inc. P.O. Box 59026, Phil. PA, 19102, 1993.

235.Hoffer A. & Pauling L. Oral Citrus Seed Extract in Atopic Eczema: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies on Intestinal Microflora. J Orthomolecular Medicine 5:155, 1990.

236.Hoffer A. Editorial. More on fluoride, on mercury and teeth, and on Alaska Bill #146. J Orthomolecular Medicine 5:187-188, 1990.

237.Hoffer A. The prevention of tardive dyskinesia (tranquilizer induced illness). Open Forum for Health Information of New Zealand, Aug-Sept 1990, 17-20.

238.Hoffer A. Vitamin B-3 (Niacin) Update. New Roles For a Key Nutrient in Diabetes, Cancer, Heart Disease and Other Major Health Problems. Keats Pubs., Inc., New Canaan, CT, 1990.

239.Hoffer A. Letter to editor. Megavitamin and megamineral therapy in childhood. Reply to Appeltauer LC. Can Med Assoc J 145:105 only, 1991.

240.Hoffer A. Megavitamin and megamineral therapy in childhood. Can Med Assoc J 144:845-846, 1991.

241.Hoffer A. Editorials. Linus Pauling’s 90th birthday. (and) National Cancer Institute and vitamin C. (and) In Memoriam: William Beebe, M.D. J Orthomolecular Medicine 6:3-4, 1991.

241.Hoffer A. Megavitamin and megamineral therapy in childhood. Can Med Assoc J, 144:845-846, 1991.

242.Hoffer A. Does decreasing cholesterol levels increase the death rate from accidents, homicides and suicide? J Orthomolecular Medicine 6:44-45, 1991.

243.Hoffer A. Editorial. Freedom of Choice Wins More Freedom. J Orthomolecular Medicine 6:55-56, 1991.

244.Hoffer A. Report of the Pharmaceutical Inquiry of Ontario on Alternative Therapies. J Orthomolecular Medicine 6:104-109, 1991.

245.Hoffer A. Orthomolecular Medicine. In: Molecules In Natural Science and Medicine, An Encomium for Linus Pauling. Ed ZB Maksic & M Eckert-Maksic, Ellis Horwood Ltd, Chichester, West Sussex, England, 1991.

246.Hoffer A. Double standard in the control of drugs and nutrients. Healthy Options, 11-13, April/May, New Zealand, 1991.

247.Hoffer A. Niacin Reaction. J of Family Practice, 34: 677 only, 1992.

248.Hoffer A. Protection against ultraviolet radiation. Can Med Ass J, 147:839-840, 1992

249.Hoffer A. Re: Antioxidant vitamins. British Columbia Medical Association Journal, 35:148 only, 1993.

250.Hoffer A. Isoniazid and pyridoxine. Can Med Assoc J, 149:1232 only, 1993.

251.Hoffer A & Pauling L: Hardin Jones Biostatistical Analysis of Mortality Data for Cohorts of Cancer Patients with a Large Fraction Surviving at the Termination of the Study and a Comparison of Survival Times of Cancer Patients Receiving Large Regular Oral Doses of Vitamin C and Other Nutrients with Similar Patients not Receiving those Doses. J Orthomolecular Medicine 5:143-154, 1990. Reprinted in Cancer and Vitamin C, E. Cameron and L. Pauling, Camino Books, Inc. P.O. Box 59026, Phil. PA 19102, 1993.

252.Hoffer A. The True Cost of Cynicism. Why Vitamin E was Ignored as Heart Therapy for 40 Years. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine Vol. 7, No. 4, 1992

253.Hoffer A. Editorial: The Politics of Medical Research; Alternative Medicine Liberated in a Second State. J of Orthomolecular Medicine, 8:3-5, 1993.

254.Hoffer A. A case of Alzheimer’s treated with nutrients and aspirin. J of Orthomolecular Medicine 8:43-44, 1993.

255.Letter. Hoffer A. Bill W. Cofounder of Alcoholics Anonymous and Vitamin B-3. J of Orthomolecular Medicine 8:57-58, 1993.

256.Hoffer A. Misconduct in High Places; Freedom to Practice Complementary Medicine Gaining Momentum. J of Orthomolecular Medicine, 8:67-68, 1993.

257.Hoffer A. Orthomolecular medicine advances into the mainstream. J of Orthomolecular Medicine, 8:99-103, 1993.

258.Hoffer A. Editorial Lysine, Ascorbic Acid and Angina Pectoris; The Discovery of Heparin. J of Orthomolecular Medicine, 8:131, 1993.

259.Hoffer A & Pauling L: Hardin Jones biostatistical analysis of mortality data for a second set of cohorts of cancer patients with a large fraction surviving at the termination of the study and a comparison of survival times of cancer patients receiving large regular oral doses of vitamin C and other nutrients with similar patients not receiving these doses. J of Orthomolecular Medicine, 8:157-167, 1993.

260.Hoffer A. Orthomolecular Oncology. In, Adjuvant Nutrition in Cancer Treatment, Ed. P Quillin & RM Williams. 1992 Symposium Proceedings, Sponsored by Cancer Treatment Research Foundation and American College of Nutrition. Cancer Treatment Research Foundation, 3455 Salt Creek Lane, Suite 200, Arlington Heights, IL 60005-1090, 331-362, 1994.

261.Hoffer A & Walker M: Smart Nutrients – A Guide to Nutrients That Can Prevent and Reverse Senility. Avery Publishing Group, Garden City Park, NY, 1994.

262.Hoffer A. Nutritional Relief for Schizophrenia. Health Naturally, 28-29, Dec 1993/Jan 1994.

263.Hoffer A. The Megavitamin Revolution. Health Counselor, 5:8-9, 1994.

264.Hoffer A. Chronic schizophrenic patients treated ten years or more. J. Orthomolecular Medicine, 9:7-37, 1994.

265.Hoffer A. Orthomolecular Oncology and Survival. 2nd International Symposium, Adjuvant Nutrition in Cancer Treatment, San Diego, Mar 17-19, 1994.

266.Hoffer A. Vitamin B-3 and Schizophrenia. Discovery, Recovery, Controversy. Quarry Press, Kingston, ON, 1995.

267.Hoffer A : Vitamin C and Cancer: Discovery, Recovery, Controversy. Quarry Press, Kingston, ON, 1995. Review

268.Hoffer A: The Discovery of Kryptopyrrole and its Importance in Diagnosis of Biochemical Imbalances in Schizophrenia and in Criminal Behavior. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine, Volume 10, First Quarter, 1995, p 3.

269.Hoffer A. A dedication to Linus Pauling. The Health Guardian. Health Guard Distributing Corporation, Burnaby, BC, 1:2 only, 1995. .

270.Hoffer A. Nutrition Therapy for Cancer Patients. 3rd International Symposium, Adjuvant Nutrition in Cancer Treatment. Tampa, Florida, Sept 28-30, 1995 .

271.Hoffer A. Editorial: Double blind studies often the bane of health advancement; (and) Report on disciplinary proceeding: the State of New York against Warren Levin, M.D. J of Orthomolecular Medicine, 9:195-198, 1994.

272.Hoffer A. Another anecdote of schizophrenia. Psychological activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) J. Orthomolecular Medicine 10:68-69, 1995.

273.Hoffer A. Vitamin B-3: Niacin and its amide. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients No. 147, Oct 1995, 30-39.

274.Hoffer A. Orthomolecular Treatment of Cancer. In, Nutrients in Cancer Prevention and Treatment. Ed. Prasad KN, Santamaria L & Williams RM. Pages 373-391, 1995, Humana Press, Totowa, New Jersey.

275.Hoffer A. Treatment of Schizophrenia. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients No. 144, July 1995, 52-57. .

276.Hoffer A: Editorial – The Megavitamin Revolution. Journal Of Orthomolecular Medicine Vol. 7, No. 1, 1995

277.Hoffer A. Schizophrenia. An Evolutionary Defense Against Severe Stress. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients No. 151/152, Feb/March 1996.

278.Hoffer A. Inside Schizophrenia: Before and After Treatment, J Orthomolecular Medicine 11:45, 1996

279.Hoffer A. Hoffer’s Law of Natural Nutrition. Quarry Press, Kingston, ON, 1996.

280.Hoffer A. The Vitamin Paradigm Wars. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients No. 155, 56-60, 1996.

281.Hoffer A. Using Vitamins and Nutrition to Help Schizophrenics. An Orthomolecular Alternative. Schizophrenia Digest, 3:13-15, 1996.

282.Hoffer A. Epidermolysis Bullosa. A Zinc Dependent Condition? Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients No.161, Dec 1996, 62-63.

283.Hoffer A; One Patient’s Recovery from Lymphoma Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients No.160, 50-51, 1996.

284.Hoffer A. Interview by Dr. J. Wright. In Let’s Live 64, 31-33, 1996.

285.Hoffer A. Schizophrenia. Interviewed by Linda Lazarides, Nutritional Therapy Today 6:6-8, 1996, with an addendum in a letter.

286.Hoffer A. How To Live Longer and Feel Better – Even With Cancer. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine 11:147-167, 1996.

287.Hoffer A. Editorial: The Future of Psychiatry. Vol. 11, No. 1, 1996

288.Hoffer A. Huntington’s Disease. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients No.163/164, 46-51, 1997.

289.Hoffer A. Arthritis. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients. December, No. 173 104 to 106, 1997

290.Hoffer A. Lupus Erythematosis. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients, No. 171, 74 to 75, 1997. Reprinted same journal No. 93/194, page 22-23, 1999

291.Hoffer A. An anecdote describing the treatment of one case of schizophrenia. No. 168, page 76-79, 1997

292.Hoffer A. Interview by Peter Barry Chowka On Orthomolecular Medicine, 1997

293.Cover Story Amer J Natural Med June Gaining Control of Schizophrenia 5:21-25, 1998

294.Hoffer A. Editorial July/August (1998?) Amer J Natural Med. Treatment of Children with Learning and/or Behavioral Disorders

295.Hoffer A. The niacin story: The first orthomolecular compound Amer J Natural Med, 5, 10-3, 1998

296.Hoffer A. Treating Children with Learning and/or Behavior Disorders. Amer J of Natural Med Editorial 5; 7-9, 1998

297.Hoffer A. Orthomolecular Psychiatry. The Whole Mind, Ed L. Bassman, New World Library, 14 Pamaron Way. Novato, Cal. 94949, Pages 423-432, 1998

298.Hoffer A. Stress Busters. Great Life 1; 28-31, 1998

299.Hoffer A. Orthomolecular Treatment of Schizophrenia. Complementary Medicine. Official Journal of the South African Complementary Medicine Association. 4, 9-14, 1998

300.Hoffer A. Unproven cancer therapies 31, 160 only, 1998

301.Hoffer A. Orthomolecular Psychiatry in Theory and Practice. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients No. 174, 107-111, 1998. (Morton Walker wrote an editorial to commemorate my 80th birthday on page 107.)

302.Hoffer A. Alzheimer’s – An Anecdote (letter) Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients, No.179, 107-109, 1998

303.Hoffer A. Orthomolecular Treatment for Schizophrenia. Natural Med J, 2, 12-13, 1999

304.Orthomolecular Medicine, An interview with Abram Hoffer, Latitudes 3:6-10,1998

305.Hoffer A. Aging Without Senility . Reprint from Smart Nutrients Alive, No. 204, 16-17, 1999

306.Hoffer A. Vitamin B-3 and Schizophrenia. Discovery, Recovery, Controversy. Quarry Press, Kingston, ON, 1999.

307.Hoffer A. Letter in Nutrition and Healing Newsletter, by Jonathan V Wright, March 2000, page 8. On Multiple sclerosis, niacin and histamine

308.Hoffer A. How OrthoMolecular Medicine Can Help. Finding Care for Depression, December 2000

309.Hoffer A. Vitamin B-3 and Schizophrenia. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients; 4/1/2001

310.Hoffer A. Vitamin B-3 Does Not Cure Tranquilizer Psychoses. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients, April 2001

311.Hoffer A. Selenium and AIDS – Book Corners. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients, November 2001

312.Hoffer A. Editorial: “Toxic” Vitamins. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine, Vol. 18, Third and Fourth Quarters, 2003 from their Special Issue on The Safety and Efficacy of Vitamins.

313.Hoffer A. Comments on Comments on “Mega-Dose Vitamins and Minerals in the Treatment of Nonmetastatic Breast… Integr Cancer Ther .2003; 2: 155-157.

314.Hoffer A. Schizophrenia and cancer: the adrenochrome balanced morphism, Medical Hypotheses, Volume 62, Issue 3, March 2004, Pages 415-419

315.Hoffer A. Lies, damn lies and statistics: the statistics game. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients, October 2004

316.Hoffer A, Foster, HD: Schizophrenia and cancer: the adrenochrome balanced morphism, Med Hypotheses. 2004;62(3):415-9

317.Hoffer A, Foster, HD: The two faces of L-DOPA. Benefits and adverse side effects in the treatment of Encephalitis lethargica, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Med Hypotheses. 2004;62(2):177-81

318.Hoffer A. Niacin, Coronary disease and Longevity

Comments are closed.